It is an encouraging sign of advancing culture that history is gaining a deeper and broader meaning. We are really becoming interested, not merely in our political, but also in our entire biological, psychological, and social evolution. Although such phrase-making is nearly always misleading, there would perhaps be more truth in saying that “history is past sociology and sociology present history” than in Freeman’s well-known epigram. In particular, the human family, with all that the word connotes, is commanding greater attention. Yet there is urgent need that its rise and social function should have far more earnest study than they now receive. The family and its cognate institutions ought to enter more fully into popular thought; and they should have much larger relative space in the educational program. From the home circle to the university seminar they are worthy to become a vital part of systematic social training. In the hope of aiding somewhat in winning for them due scientific recognition, this book is written. It seems not impossible that a sustained history of the matrimonial institutions of the English race in its “three homes” may prove a positive advantage, especially in gathering the materials and planning the work for more detailed investigations. Moreover, a thorough understanding of the social evolution of any people must rest upon the broader experience of mankind. Accordingly, in Part I the attempt is made to present a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the literature and the theories of primitive matrimonial institutions.

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CHAPTER I
THE PATRIARCHAL THEORY

[Bibliographical Note I.—The modern history of the patriarchal theory begins with Filmer’s Patriarchia (London, 1680), in which the author finds in the Hebrew family a justification of the “divine prerogative” of kings; and the trenchant reply of Locke in The Two Treatises on Civil Government (London, 1690), reprinted with Filmer’s work in the ninth volume of Morley’s Universal Library. But the theory is especially associated with the name of Sir Henry Maine. HisAncient Law (New York, 1861), aside from its leading hypothesis, is one of the most suggestive books of the century. It was followed by the Early History of Institutions (New York, 1875); the Village Communities (New York, 1876); and Early Law and Custom (New York, 1883). In this last work he contributes supplementary chapters on such topics as “Ancestor-Worship” and “East European House Communities,” and he replies to his critics. Maine is criticised by Spencer, Principles of Sociology (New York, 1879), Vol. I, Part III, chap. ix; and by McLennan, Patriarchal Theory (London, 1885), who, on the negative side, is fairly successful in confuting his adversary. Hearn’s Aryan Household (London, 1879) and the Ancient City (Boston, 1877) of Fustel de Coulanges take practically the same view of primitive society as Maine, while particularly emphasizing ancestor-worship and the genealogical organization.

For the early Aryans and the Hindus see Zimmer’s Alt-indisches Leben (Berlin, 1879); Delbrück’s Die indogermanischen Verwandtschaftsnamen (Leipzig, 1885); Schrader’s Sprachvergleichung und Urgeschichte (Jena, 1883), or the English translation by Jevons (London, 1890); Zmigrodski’s Die Mutter bei den Völkern des arischen Stammes (Munich, 1886); and especially Leist’s epoch-making works, Graeco-italische Rechtsgeschichte (Jena, 1884) and the Alt-arisches Jus Gentium (Jena, 1889). Of first-rate value also are the Rechtshistorische und rechtsvergleichende Forschungen (Part III, on Indisches Ehe- und Familienrecht) and the other papers of the indefatigable Kohler. Of these the following are particularly interesting in this connection, all found in the Zeitschrift für vergleichende Rechtswissenschaft: “Rechtsverhältnisse auf dem ostind. Archipel u. den westl. Karolinen,” ZVR., VI, 344-50; “Gewohnheitsrechte des Pendschabs,” ibid., VII, 161-239; “Indische Gewohnheitsrechte,” ibid., VIII, 89-147,[4] 262-73; “Gewohnheitsrechte von Bengalen,” ibid., IX, 321-60; “Gewohnheitsrechte der Provinz Bombay,” ibid., X, 64-142, 161-88; “Gewohnheitsrechte der ind. Nordwestprovinzen,” ibid., XI, 161-95; and, for comparison, “Die Ionsage und Vaterrecht,” ibid., V, 407-14; “Studien über künstliche Verwandtschaft,” ibid., V, 415-40; and “Das Recht der Armenier,” ibid., VII, 385-436. As in the last-named paper, the influence of Roman law may be traced in Mégavorian, Étude ethnographique et juridique sur la famille et le mariage arméniens (Paris, 1894). Hass, “Die Heirathsgebrāuche der alten Inder nach den Grihyasûtra,” in Weber’s Indische Studien, V, 267-412 (Berlin, 1862), reveals in an admirable way the religious spirit pervading the ancient Hindu matrimonial life. This study suggested the excellent monograph of Weber, “Vedische Hochzeitssprüche,” ibid., V, 177-266; while the conclusions of both Haas and Weber are ably supported, with the aid of additional sources, by the more elaborate paper of Winternitz, “Das altindische Hochzeitsrituell,” in Denkschriften der kais. Akad. d. Wiss., phil.-hist. Klasse, XL, 1-113 (Vienna, 1892). In this connection, for comparison, may be read Mackenzie, “An Account of the Marriage Ceremonies of the Hindus and Mahommedans as Practised in the Southern Peninsula of India,” in Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, III (London, 1835); and Lushington, “On the Marriage Rites and Usages of the Jâts of Bharatpur,” in Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, II, 273-97 (Calcutta, 1833). Especially important are Bernhöft’s “Die Grundlagen der Rechtsentwicklung bei den indogermanischen Völkern,” in ZVR., II, 253-328; his “Altindisches Familienorganisation,” ibid., IX, 1-45; and his “Das Gesetz von Gortyn,” ibid., VI, 281-304, 430-40. A popular, but in the main uncritical, book is Clarisse Bader’s La femme dans l’Inde antique (2d ed., Paris, 1867). Similar in plan and treatment are her La femme biblique (new ed., Paris, 1873); La femme grecque (2d ed., Paris, 1873); and La femme romaine (2d ed., Paris, 1877). A strong defense of the dignified position of the ancient Indic woman, based on the sources, may be found in Jacolliot’s La femme dans l’Inde (Paris, 1877); and Mary Frances Billington is a vigorous champion of the social status of modern Woman in India (London, 1895). See also Pizzi, “Les coutumes nuptiales aux temps héroïques de l’Iran,” in La Muséon, II, 3 (1883); Vidyasagar, On Widow-Marriages among the Hindus (Calcutta, 1855); and Schlagintweit, “Die Hindu-Wittwe in Indien,” in Globus, XLIII (1883). Among the best technical writings are Mayne’s Hindu Law and Usage (Madras and London, 1888); Jolly’s Hindu Law of Partition (Calcutta, 1885); his Rechtliche Stellung der Frauen bei den alten Indern (Munich, 1876); Tupper’s Punjab Customary Law (Calcutta, 1881); and Gooroodass’s “The Hindu Law of Marriage and Stridahn,” in Tagore Law Lectures, 1878 (Calcutta, 1879). Max Müller’s series of Sacred[5] Books contains Apastamba, Gautama, Visnu, and the other Sūtras, as well as the later versified law-books of Manu and Yājñavalkya, with other sources of ancient Indic custom. Burnell and Hopkins’s Manu (London, 1891) is an excellent edition; and Jolly has a German translation of Books VIII and IX in ZVR., III, 232-83; IV, 321-61. For each important point these sources are thoroughly collated in the writings of Kohler, Leist, and Jolly, above referred to.

For the Slavs, Krauss’s Sitte und Brauch der Südslaven (Vienna, 1885) is the most valuable treatise. See also Turner, Slavisches Familienrecht (Strassburg, 1874); and Kovalevsky’s Modern Customs and Ancient Laws of Russia (London, 1891), in which the author criticises and corrects Sir Henry Maine on important points. For Greece, in addition to Leist’s works above mentioned, see the paper of Campaux, Du mariage à Athènes (Paris, 1867); that of Moy, “La famille dans Homère,” in Revue des cours littéraires, 8 mars 1869; Stegeren, De conditione civili feminarum atheniensium (Zwallae, 1839); Ouvré, Observations sur le régime matrimonial au temps d’Homère (Paris, 1886); Lasaulx, Zur Geschichte und Philosophie der Ehe bei den Griechen (Munich, 1852); especially Hruza’s Die Ehebegründung nach attischem Rechte (Erlangen and Leipzig, 1892); and his Polygamie und Pellikat nach griechischem Rechte (Erlangen and Leipzig, 1894).

On the matrimonial institutions of the Romans consult Marquardt’s Privatleben; Lange’s Römische Alterthümer; Smith’s Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities; Müller’s Handbuch; Bernhöft’s Staat und Recht der rom. Königszeit (Stuttgart, 1882); Karlowa’s Die Formen der röm. Ehe und Manus (Bonn, 1868); Rossbach’s Die röm. Ehe (Stuttgart, 1853); his Römische Hochzeits- und Ehedenkmäler (Leipzig, 1871); Laband’s “Rechtliche Stellung der Frauen im altröm. und germanischen Recht,” in Zeitschrift für Völkerpsychologie, III (Berlin, 1865); and Bouchez-Leclercq’s Manuel des inst. romaines (Paris, 1886). From the mass of writings which are of service for this and the four subsequent chapters may also be mentioned Brissonius, De ritu nuptiarum (Paris, 1564); his De jure connubiorum (Paris, 1564); Hotman, De veteri ritu nuptiarum observatio; his De sponsalibus; his De ritu nuptiarum et jure matrimoniorum—all published and bound with the two works of Brissonius (Leyden, 1641); Grupen, De uxore romana (Hannover, 1727); Ayrer, De jure connubiorum apud romanos (Göttingen, 1736); the anonymous Dei riti delle antiche nozze romane (Perugia, 1791); Maanen, De muliere in manu et in tutela (Lugd. Bat., 1823); Schultz, De jure succedendi feminarum apud romanos (Trajecti ad Rhenum, 1826); Chamblain, De la puissance paternelle chez les romains (Paris, 1829); Eggers, Wesen und Eigenthümlichkeiten der altröm. Ehe mit Manus (Altona, 1833); Mahlmann, De matrimonii veterum romanorum ineundi (Halle, 1845); Hase, De manu juris romani (Halle, 1847);[6] Gerlach, De romanorum connubio (Halle, 1851); Dubief, Qualis fuerit familia romana tempore Plauti (Molini, 1859); Pagés, La famille romaine (Toulouse, 1892); Louïse, Du sénatus-consulte velléien et de l’incapacité de la femme mariée (Chateau-Thierry, 1873); Bourdin, De la condition de la mère en droit romain et en droit français (Paris, 1881); Salomon, Du mariage du droit des gens et en général des mariages sans connubium (Paris, 1889); Desminis, Die Eheschenkung nach röm. und insbesondere nach byzantinischem Recht (Athens, 1897); and Ciccotti, Donne e politica negli ultimi anni della republica romana (Milan, 1895). The criticisms of Kuntze, Excurse über röm. Recht (2d ed., Leipzig, 1880), and Esmein, Mélanges d’histoire du droit et de critique (Paris, 1886), are of great value on various important questions. Compare also Couch, “Woman in Early Roman Law,” in Harvard Law Review, VIII (Cambridge, 1895); Picot, Du mariage romain, chrétien, et français (Paris, 1849); Monlezun, Condition civile de la femme mariée à Rome et en France (Paris, 1878); Tardieu, De la puissance paternelle en droit romain et en droit français (Paris, 1875); and Cornil, “Contribution à l’étude de la patria potestas,” in Nouv. rev. hist. de droit, XXI, 416-85 (Paris, 1897). Gide’s excellent Étude sur la condition privée de la femme (2d ed., Paris, 1885) deals with the laws of Greece, Rome, and other nations. Poste’s edition of Gaius’s Institutionum juris civilis commentarii quatuor (Oxford, 1875) is an indispensable source; and among legal treatises are particularly to be commended Muirhead’s Introduction to the Private Law of Rome (Edinburgh, 1886); Puchta’s Institutionen; Moyle’s Institutionum Libri (Oxford, 1890); Rein, Privatrecht (Leipzig, 1836); and especially Sohm’s Institutes (Oxford, 1892), by far the best work on the subject for historical purposes, showing the rare insight, clearness of analysis, and vigorous style peculiar to the author. Most readers will find the short Introduction of Hadley and the excellent Outlines of Professor Morey sufficient. For the general subject of marriage and the family the Zeitschrift für vergleichende Rechtswissenchaft (Stuttgart, 1878-96) is indispensable; while the Kritische Vierteljahresschrift für Gesetzgebung und Rechtswissenschaft and the Zeitschrift für Ethnologie are also of constant service.

For the literature of Arabian and Hebrew matrimonial institutions, respectively, see Bibliographical Notes II and IV.

The student who has not yet seriously attacked the literature of the subject will do well to begin with the following: Tylor, “On a Method of Investigating the Development of Institutions, Applied to Laws of Marriage and Descent,” in Journal of Anth. Inst., XVIII, No. 3; Bernhöft’s “Zur Geschichte des europäischen Familienrechts,” in ZVR., VIII, 1-27, 161-221, 384-405; in connection with his “Principien des europäischen Familienrechts,” ibid., IX, 392-444; Friedrichs,[7]“Familien-Stufen und Eheformen,” ibid., X, 189-281; the first two chapters of Posada’s Théories modernes (Paris, 1896); and the first three chapters of Botsford’s Athenian Constitution (Boston, 1893), one of the ablest contributions to comparative institutions. This is supplemented by H. E. Seebohm’s Structure of Greek Tribal Society (London and New York, 1895). For summaries of the results of investigations, from different points of view, Delbrück’s “Das Mutterrecht bei den Indogermanen,” in Preussische Jahrbücher, XCVII, 14-27 (Berlin, 1895), may be compared with Dargun’s Mutterrecht und Vaterrecht (Leipzig, 1892), containing a criticism of the views of many recent writers.]

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