It is an encouraging sign of advancing culture that history is gaining a deeper and broader meaning. We are really becoming interested, not merely in our political, but also in our entire biological, psychological, and social evolution. Although such phrase-making is nearly always misleading, there would perhaps be more truth in saying that “history is past sociology and sociology present history” than in Freeman’s well-known epigram. In particular, the human family, with all that the word connotes, is commanding greater attention. Yet there is urgent need that its rise and social function should have far more earnest study than they now receive. The family and its cognate institutions ought to enter more fully into popular thought; and they should have much larger relative space in the educational program. From the home circle to the university seminar they are worthy to become a vital part of systematic social training. In the hope of aiding somewhat in winning for them due scientific recognition, this book is written. It seems not impossible that a sustained history of the matrimonial institutions of the English race in its “three homes” may prove a positive advantage, especially in gathering the materials and planning the work for more detailed investigations. Moreover, a thorough understanding of the social evolution of any people must rest upon the broader experience of mankind. Accordingly, in Part I the attempt is made to present a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the literature and the theories of primitive matrimonial institutions.
MATRIMONIAL INSTITUTIONS IN ENGLAND
HISTORY OF SEPARATION AND DIVORCE UNDER ENGLISH AND ECCLESIASTICAL LAW
[Bibliographical Note XI.—For divorce among the Athenians Meier and Schömann’s Der attische Process (Berlin, 1883-87) is important. Assistance has also been given by Hruza, Ehebegründung nach att. Rechte (Leipzig, 1892); idem, Polygamie und Pellikat (Leipzig, 1894); and Müller and Bauer, “Die griech. Privat- und Kriegsalterthümer” (1893), in Müller’s Handbuch. The Hebrew law on the subject is well treated by Mielziner, The Jewish Law of Marriage and Divorce(Cincinnati, 1884); and especially by Amram, in his excellent Jewish Law of Divorce (Philadelphia, 1896). In his “Divorce on Condition,” in the Green Bag, III, August, 1891, the last-named writer has described a curious device for escaping marriage with a brother-in-law and employed also in cases of long absence. Besides the works of Stubbe, Duschak, Döllinger, and Lichtschein, elsewhere noticed, see Selden, Uxor ebraica (Frankfort, 1673), or the same in his Opera, II (London, 1726); Fraenkel, Grundlinien des mosaisch-talmud. Eherechts (Breslau, 1860); Saalschuetz, Das mosaische Recht (2d ed., Berlin, 1853); and Meyer, Die Rechte der Israeliten, Athener, und Römer (Leipzig, 1862-66).
The leading work on Roman divorce is Wächter’s Ueber die Ehescheidungen (Stuttgart, 1821). There is also a good account in the seventh and eighth chapters of Hasse’s Das Gütterrecht der Ehegatten nach röm. Recht (Berlin, 1824). Savigny has an article on “Die erste Ehescheidung in Rom,” in Abhandlungen der könig. Akad. der Wiss. in Berlin, 1814-16 (Berlin, 1818). Very important also is Rein, Das röm. Privatrecht (Leipzig, 1836); and on divorce in connection with the alleged depravation of morals at the close of the republic there is a fine passage in Lecky, European Morals (3d ed., New York, 1881). The subject is treated by Marche, Historia juris civilis de divortiis (Leipzig, 1764); Langeron, Du divorce en droit romain (Paris, 1857); Morael, Droit romain: du divorce (Paris, 1888); and Combier, Du divorce en droit romain (Paris, 1880). Esmein, Mélanges (Paris, 1886), has a chapter dealing in part with Roman divorce; and in the same volume may be found the best existing treatment of adultery in connection with the Lex Julia de adulteriis. With other matter this law is also considered by Gessert, Ad leg. Jul. de adult. coerc. (Würtemberg, 1795); Haupt, De poena adulterii ex leg. Jul. (Leipzig, 1797); Jörs, Die Ehegesetze des Augustus (Marburg, 1894); and Bennecke in his able monograph Die strafrechtliche Lehre vom Ehebruch (Marburg, 1884), bringing the general history of his subject down to the middle of the fifteenth century. In this connection have likewise been of service Sohm’s Institutes and the works of Fustel de Coulanges, Hölder, Rossbach, Karlowa, Unger, Maine, Marquardt, and Zhishman elsewhere described. The ground of the chapter is mainly covered by Woolsey, Divorce and Divorce Legislation (2d ed., New York, 1882); and Glasson, Le mariage civil et le divorce (2d ed., Paris, 1880); as also by the general works of Popp, Ehescheidung (Amberg and Sulzbach, 1800); Tissot, Le mariage, la séparation et le divorce (Paris, 1868); Thwing, The Family (Boston, 1887); Gide, La femme (2d ed., Paris, 1885); Scheurl, Das gemeine deutsche Eherecht (Erlangen, 1882); and there is a concise historical account by Friedericus, De divortio meditationes (Leipzig, 1842).
For the origin and early development of the Christian doctrine, besides the Scriptures, the principle sources are, of course, the writings of the Fathers and the provisions of the first ecclesiastical councils. The most important monograph is Geffcken’s Zur Geschichte der Ehescheidung vor Gratian (Leipzig, 1894). The subject is treated in Moy, Das Eherecht der Christen (Regensburg, 1833). There is a good account by Loening, Geschichte des deutschen Kirchenrechts(Strassburg, 1878); and another by Meyrick in his article “Marriage,” in the second volume of the Dict. of Christ. Antiquities. The rigid theological point of view is taken by Watkins, Holy Matrimony (London, 1895); and Luckock, History of Marriage (London, 1894). Among similar works, mainly controversial, may be consulted Ap Richard, Marriage and Divorce (London, 1888); Caverno, Treatise on Divorce (Madison, 1889); Hovey, The Scriptural Law of Divorce(Philadelphia, 1866); Greve, Die Ehescheidung nach der Lehre des Neuen Testamentes (Leipzig, 1873); and the anonymous Ueber den einzig wahren Ehescheidungsgrund in der christ. Kirche (Bayreuth, 1838). Standard Catholic treatises are Cigoi, Die Unauflösbarkeit der christ. Ehe (Paderborn, 1895); Didon, Indissolubilité et divorce (4th ed., Paris, 1880); or the German translation of the same by Schneider (Regensburg, 1893); Roskovány, De matrimonio in eccle. cath.(Augustae Vindelicorum, 1837); Scheicher-Binder, Praktisches Handbuch des kath. Eherechts (4th ed., Freiburg, 1891); and especially Perrone, De matrimonio christ. (Leodii, 1861). Pompen has a special Tractatus de dispensationibus et de revalidatione mat. (2d ed., Amsterdam, 1897).
On Germanic law and custom see Tacitus’s Germania; the Monumenta Germaniae Historica; and the collections of Thorpe, Schmid, and Liebermann. Heussler’s Institutionen, Weinhold’s Deutsche Frauen, Grimm’s Rechtsalterthümer, Brunner’s Rechtsgeschichte, and the similar works of Schroeder, Zoepfl, and Walter have all been consulted. The penitentials, containing evidence of compromise between Teutonic usage and the strict dogmas of the church, may be found in Thorpe, Ancient Laws; Haddan and Stubbs, Councils; Wasserschleben, Bussordnungen (Halle, 1851); and Schmitz, Bussbücher (Mayence, 1883). These have largely superseded the older works of Kuntsmann, Die lateinischen Poenitentialbücher der Angelsachsen (Mayence, 1844); and Hildebrand, Untersuchungen über die germ. Poenitentialbücher (Würzburg, 1851). The penitentials are analyzed by Bennecke, Esmein, and Freisen; also by Hinschius, “Das Ehescheidungsrecht nach den angelsäch. und frank. Bussordnungen,” in Zeitschrift für deutsches Recht, XX; and Rosenthal, Die Rechtsfolgen des Ehebruchs nach kan. und deutsch. Recht(Würzburg, 1880). In this connection may also be read Heller, Ueber die Strafe des Ehebruchs (Ulm, 1773); Wächter, Abhandlungen aus dem Strafrechte (Leipzig, 1835), I, dealing with Entführung and Nothzucht; Wilda, Strafrecht (Halle, 1842); and Pollen, Fatal Consequences of Adultery (London, 1772), giving literary and other curiosities of the subject. A useful book is Boehmer’s Ueber die Ehegesetze im Zeitalter Karls des Grossen (Göttingen, 1826), discussing the inconsistency of temporal and ecclesiastical legislation regarding divorce; as is also Sdralek’s Hinkmars Gutachten über die Ehescheidung des Königs Lothar II. (Freiburg, 1881).
Primary sources for the settlement of the canon law on the subject of divorce are the Decretum of Gratian and the other materials comprised in Richter-Friedberg’s Corpus juris canonici. For England Johnson’s Canons and Godolphin’s Repartorium canonicum (3d ed., London, 1687) are serviceable. The state of the law in the age of the decretalists may be learned from Wunderlich’s edition of Tancred’s Summa de matrimonio (Göttingen, 1841); and for its historical development the great works of Esmein and Freisen, elsewhere mentioned, are indispensable. Schulte’s Lehrbuch and the Lehrbuch of Friedberg cover the subject. In connection with the rise of the jurisdiction of the church should be read Sohm, “Die geist. Gerichtsbarkeit im frank. Reich,” in ZKR., IX (Tübingen, 1870). For the matrimonial experiences of Margaret of Scotland, illustrating the facility of divorce by indirect methods under the canon law, see Tait’s article in the Dict. of Nat. Biog., XXXVI; and similar material in the Reports of the Historical Manuscripts Commission. For the literature relating to the Council of Trent consult Bibliographical Note VII.