James Morris Webb (born 1874) was a Christian preacher from USA who was active ca 1910-1930, related to the African Methodist Episcopal Church, which is considered the first African-American denomination in the United States. He was one of several preachers from this denomination who agitated for a black nationalism and a social and kristensyn which highlighted African Americans’ role in history. In 1919 he published the book The Black Man, The Father Of Civilization, Proven By Biblical History. He wrote other pamphlets and charged in November 1913 an advertisement in The Chicago Defender with a picture of Jesus as a black man. Webb’s intention was to “show love for their race” and “show that the Bible is all about black.” Webb later became one of Marcus Garvey employees Universal Negro Improvement Association.

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JAMES MORRIS WEBB, A. M.
Evangelist of the Church of God
(Acts 20-28, Biblical)]

The
Black Man

The Father of Civilization

 

Proven by Biblical
History

 

AUTHOR:
James Morris Webb, A. M.

 

 


[Pg 3]

PREFACE.

I have many objects in presenting this book to the public.

First: I love my race regardless of the prejudice against her, the unenviable position she holds, and the things she is falsely said to be guilty of.

I demonstrate my love for her by launching this book before the public as somewhat of a defense against the prejudice of ancient, as well as modern historical writers and lecturers, who have misrepresented her, and took from her the good deeds and honors that are justly due her.

Secondly: I realize that my race has had defenders, and has some now, men of my race and men of other races. But I am simply presenting this book as an humble race defender, in connection with the body of race defenders, and if my theory in this book is accepted as one of the little fingers of this splendid body, I will feel that I have accomplished some results and thus portrayed the story of “The Widow’s Mite”—she gave all she had, and I contribute likewise.

Thirdly: To appreciate my argument, the reader had best have a Bible at [Pg 4]his finger tips so as to examine my references and compare them with my statements, which I make wholly and solely upon the authorities found in the Bible, which in turn is the real and only authority on ancient history (again my authority is not inspired in the slightest degree with malice or hatred for the white race). My profession as a Minister of the Gospel of Jesus Christ would not permit me to defend in the name of justice, harboring malice and hatred or any ill feeling toward my white brethren. I am acting with that meek and humble spirit and with a gigantic pride in my race, which I hope, pleases God.

J. M. WEBB.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN FREDERICK DOUGLAS
DR. BOOKER T. WASHINGTON

THREE OF THE GREATEST MEN IN AMERICAN HISTORY

Frederick Douglas, the thunder-bolt, whose mighty peals of thunder awoke the sympathy of the Christian men and women of this country in behalf of his enslaved and suffering people.

Abraham Lincoln, the flash of lightning, who, like a streak of light from Heaven giving hope to the black people, struck the shackles from their hands and left them lying shattered at their feet.

Dr. Booker T. Washington, who is nobly directing a never-to-be-forgotten battle for that moral and industrial education, which Douglas and Lincoln made it possible for them to obtain.

 

INTRODUCTION

 

The Bible gives the first and only true account of the origin of mankind. It is the only book containing an accurate record of the progress of man toward civilization, and it is the indispensable reference of all searchers after the real facts of the birth of humanity and its progress toward the civilization of today; beginning with his creation, it is the only authentic record of man; authentic because it is first hand, not a copy of something else or a scientific or literary review, but a dispassionate record of man’s creation and progress, untrimmed, unshaped and unvarnished, to suit prejudice. It would not be a complete record if it did not show with the rest of them the origin of the black man and “Woe for all these pinnacle thieves”—it shows that he, the “black man” is the “father of civilization.”

The black man has been misrepresented by prejudiced historians and lecturers. It has been and is now quoted that Ham, the father of the black man, was cursed by his father, Noah. Now, in regard to this [Pg 6]incident let us take the Biblical record for it, and anyone not totally blind with prejudice will be convinced by reading in the Book of Genesis the 9th Chapter from the 20th to the 27th verse inclusive, that Noah did not, “for he could not curse” Ham, although he did in a fit of intoxication pronounce a curse on Canaan, the son of Ham. In passing, I might mention that Canaan was never inconvenienced by the curse of Noah, because he was the Father of seven prosperous nations, foremost among them were the Canaanites, Phoenicians and Sidonians. The Sidonians sprang from Sidon, who was the first son of Canaan, according to Genesis 10th Chapter 15th verse. These same Sidonians are the men “descended from black men” whom Solomon ordered Hiram of Tyre to engage to do the skilled hewing and designing of the timber work on Solomon’s temple—Solomon declaring that these Sidonians, “black men” were the only men possessed with anywhere near sufficient skill to take charge of and successfully complete the artistic timber work on “His” Solomon’s temple. First Kings 5th Chapter 6th verse speaks very plainly of this fact. Solomon knew the black race was a superior, not an inferior race. He married Pharoah’s daughter—see 1st Kings, 3rd[Pg 7] Chapter 1st verse; 7th Chapter 8th verse, also the 9th Chapter and 16th verse. Solomon’s wife might have been of as dark skin or even as black as he was, for history shows that Egypt had two full blooded Ethiopian Pharoahs just before and during the reign of Solomon, according to Herodotus, the names of these two Ethiopians were Sabaco or “Sebichos” and Sethos, so Solomon surely got an Ethiopian “Negro or black” woman for a wife. This naturally increased the proportion of Negro blood in the veins of the future King of the Jews. Viewing the progress of the immediate descendants of Ham we learn that a curse laid upon one by a mortal of that day was as foolish and ineffective as it is in this, the story about this curse, also the story of the black man who contended that a black skin and woolly hair is a disgrace, has, according to the Bible, no foundation. Speaking of black skin, the greatest brain work and wisdom ever given to this world was given by men of black skins, or at least in whose veins the greatest portion of blood was Ethiopian or Negro blood. As to this assertion and King Solomon, see “Songs of Solomon 1st Chapter 6th verse.” Solomon’s dark skin should cause no surprise, because his mother, Hittite, was also the[Pg 8] widow of Uriah (see 2nd Samuels 12th Chapter 9th and 10th verses). The Hittites are the descendants of Heth and Heth was the second son of Canaan (see Genesis 10th Chapter 15th verse).

As to the woolly hair, Jesus, the Blessed Saviour of Mankind, will have His head covered with woolly hair when he comes to judge the world, (Daniel 7th Chapter 9th and 10th verses). Now, if Daniel’s prophecy is true that when Christ left this earth he had woolly hair, he naturally will return with woolly hair, and the pictures of Him today are an erroneous conception of Him, by the artists. This grand old book the Bible, does not show that God ever turned a man black to disgrace him for his sins, or anything else, but this same Bible does show that God’s power did turn a man white to disgrace him because of his sins, and said that his seed would be likewise forever. Facts are stubborn things and often very disagreeable, sometimes even sickening, and by reading carefully the 5th Chapter of the 2nd Kings, 25th, 26th and 27th verses, many of our highly civilized brethren “whose ancient ancestors disgraced them” will suffer an alarming fit of nausea. Among the many low cowardly things that[Pg 9] have been said and done against the Negro during this Christian era, one poor benighted individual published a “joke” in book form, in which he claims that, the Negro is a beast, the poor fellow tries to be serious, and no doubt thinks he is offering at least some proof of his assertion. The poor fellow of course, receives some sympathy, and would no doubt receive as much as any of the rest of his class, were it not for the fact that he holds a Professorship in one of our leading American Christian Universities. Of course the disgust, if any, is felt for those responsible for placing the poor devil in such a position, and the real and well placed sympathy is for the student, who must suffer because of this fellow. The fact remains, however, that regardless of what has been said and done against the Negro and of whatever might be said or done against him in future, he is the ONLY man who can trace himself back through the ages to his origin, and find monumental evidence of his unequaled greatness, his prowess, the laurels and great honors he won, the things he created and perfected which have a direct influence on our civilization of today.

The “black man” I boldly assert “was the Father of civilization,” born in the land[Pg 10] of Egypt, and the different branches of Science and Art were simply transmitted to other races, which, as the ages have rolled by have only been enlarged and to some extent improved upon. Even the modern American Negro has proven that he is original, for instance—as a Tonsorial Artist he has no superiors and no Negro was ever known to enter a “Barber College” to learn the trade. Negroes inherit the sweetest, most musical voices, and if you have not heard a Negro quartette or chorus after they have arranged the harmony of a piece they are to sing, you have not heard what is best and sweetest in vocal music. As instrumentalists “not forgetting the many others” I simply mention Blind Tom, and Blind Boone, the fame of these two men needs no comment. They only displayed that talent handed down to them through centuries by their black ancestors. As for the Negro being original, why the Negro has given great America the only claim she ever did or ever will have to a National music.

God honored the black man by allowing some of his Ethiopian blood to flow in the veins of His only Son Jesus Christ, and I unhesitatingly assert that Jesus would in[Pg 11] America be classed a NEGRO. I make this assertion only on the authority of the Bible, according to which Jesus was born out of the tribe of Judah. Judah had only five children and they were males, (1st Chron. 2nd ch. and 4th v.), three by his first wife and two by his second wife (1st Chron. 2nd ch. 3rd and 4th vs.), and both of his wives were descendants of Canaan, a black man who was the son of Ham (Genesis 10th ch. 6th v.). Tamar, Judah’s second wife, bore him two of these sons whose names were Phares and Zarah (1st Chron. 2nd ch. and 4th v.), these two names appear in the genealogy of Jesus Christ in the Book of Matthew (1st Chapter 3rd verse), so it is no trouble to see that Judah of whom Christ was to come, started out by presenting to the world children of Canaanite women who were Hamite descendants. Now, Virgin Mary, of whom Christ was born was beyond all doubt a woman out of the tribe of Judah, and every Bible reference proclaims that Jesus was to spring from this tribe of Judah (Genesis 49-10, Heb. 7-14, Rev. 5-5th). Our beloved St. Paul tells us in (Romans 1-3) that Jesus was of the seed of David according to the flesh. David is the 10th man named from Judah in the genealogy of Jesus Christ (Matthew 1st[Pg 12] Chapter, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th verses). Added to this David’s great, great grandfather “Booz” was born of the woman Rahab, who was a direct descendant of Ham (Matthew 1st Chapter 5th verse). This also shows that David, one of God’s greatest soldiers, was one who most successfully led his people and one who had Negro blood in his veins. Bible history is full of honors for the Black Man, Jethro the Ethiopian or Negro father-in-law of Moses, who was the author who first employed that, which is today, our judicial system, considerably twisted and revised to meet the changing conditions of civilization (Exodus 18th Chapter). This chapter tells of Jethro’s visit to Moses, and how he gave Moses the foundation of what is today our system of graded courts for pronouncing judgments. Again Moses “The Hebrew Emancipator” was named by a black woman “Pharoah’s daughter”—she said she called him Moses because she drew him out of the water (Exodus 2-10) and besides black men educated Moses. At any rate he received what education he had in the schools of the black people of Egypt (Acts 7th 22nd), so there is nothing remarkable in the fact that Dr. Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. DuBois, W. S. Scarborough and[Pg 13] many other Negro or black men occupy places among the foremost and most eminent educators of the world, and why should they not? They are descended from fathers who ruled Egypt centuries ago and with their great wisdom layed the foundation of learning.

[Pg 14]

 

BISHOP H. M. TURNER, D.D., L.L.D.
The Most Fearless Defender the Afro-Americans Have

 

BISHOP H. M. TURNER, D.D., L.L.D.

Bishop H. M. Turner, born at Newbury, South Carolina, February 1st, 1833, is the senior Bishop of the A. M. E. Church. He has been Bishop for thirty-one years, and is quoted as the walking encyclopedia of Methodism, and for this cause the last general conference that convened at Norfolk, Va., on May, 1908, voted unanimously for the good Bishop to be the historian of the African-Methodist Episcopal Church. It is to be remembered that Bishop Turner was the first colored man to be a commissioned officer in the United States Army, which appointment he received from President Lincoln. The Bishop was twice a member of the Georgia Legislature, and also the first of his church to be elected Bishop to Africa.

 

 

[Pg 15]

THE BLACK MAN

 

FIRST CHAPTER.

 

“THAT time changes all things” is a saying so old and so true as to admit of no argument. It is exemplified in so many different ways as to require no comment, and yet when we hear the phrase used glibly and thoughtlessly, every day, it is but natural to wonder if the one who uses it realizes what he is saying, or rather, if he knows what those few commonplace words mean, when used to form that sentence.

It is a foregone conclusion that he does not. He never stopped, “he, of this enlightened age, I mean,” long enough to examine even a little of the abundance of indisputable proof that the saying “Time changes all things” applies to things and conditions, seldom if ever present, to his own narrow mind, and far away and beyond even his meaner and low prejudiced influence. If he did, his retrospective mood, would, before carrying him back to the very beginning, suffer something of a shock, and his attitude would change. Instead of delighting in history, modern, medieval and[Pg 16] ancient, his attitude would change so noticeably that an observer would imagine that his only interest was in tearing down and falsifying facts, and concealing records that he could not falsify. When we hear or read the sayings of some of our “misnamed” great men, but in reality disgustingly conspicuous public figures, we are fully justified in making the charge of falsifying and concealing such facts as they are not really ignorant of. One of these conspicuous public characters delights in making the assertion that the Hamite Ethiopian or Negro never amounted to anything, or possessed anything, never occupied an eminence, save to which the Semitic or white man had dragged or driven him up to. If ignorance alone was responsible for this glaring falsehood, a great deal of sympathy would go out to those who make the statement as well as those who believe it to be true because of their ignorance. As harsh as it may seem sympathy would be wasted for a great deal of the self asserted enlightenment of today is but egotism. Much of the so-called wisdom is self praise for successfully concealing, or at least surrounding historical facts with such mystery as to place the descendants of Shem upon an eminence which is not justly his and makes him in his own[Pg 17] opinion appear much larger than what he really is. And yet with all the egotism, some knowledge of the true origin of mankind exists, and it is this knowledge that causes the fasifying and hiding as much as possible the true historical records, especially of the black man. It cannot be said that the learned historical writers, the great Divines, Theological students and lecturers of today are ignorant of the history of Ham, the son of Noah, and his descendants, such as Nimrod, the founder of the great ancient city of Babylon, and also Menes the first King of Egypt and the founder of the great ancient city of Memphis.

Ridpath says that the traditions of antiquity points to Memphis and Babylon as the fountains of human wisdom. If those above-named are ignorant of the history of the last-named, they are doing the world a great injustice in assuming the position of teacher and leader. If they are familiar with the history of the races and the deeds of men, they will no doubt have for them and their kind good and sufficient reasons for making false and misleading statements as to some historical records, and totally forgetting or demeaning others.

An early Queen of Egypt was a descendant of the Ethiopian or Negro race.[Pg 18] This is conceded by some of the modern writers; some of them going so far as to say that her skin was very black, and a few of them acknowledge that it was this black queen who placed the first fleet of war ships on the river Nile. They have no doubt traced this woman back to where they are satisfied that she was descended in a direct lineal line from Zipporah, the black and Ethiopian wife of Moses. We read very little of these two women, because modern writers seek to obscure them, and our ministers of the gospel never preach or lecture on that part of the Bible in which they are mentioned. WHY? Because, if they do they must give credit to black people. In this connection, I do not speak of Biblical history only. Were it not for the fact that the dimensions of this book would be extended far beyond what was intended, I could begin even with Hannibal, the Carthagenian General, and record the accomplishments of black men without the intervening of any long periods of time, down to the time of Alexander Dumas, Toussant L’Overture, and Alexander Sergievitch Pouskin, Russo-African poet. I could do more, I could come into the borders of this Republic and beginning with Crispus Octikus, or Alexander Hamilton—record the[Pg 19] accomplishments of these same black descendants of Ham, down to this day. This modern record would contain many references to both the war of Independence and the war of the Rebellion. It would also mention a great many black men who can never forget El Caney and San Juan Hill. Besides the heroes of war, modern history is replete with the names of black men famous in peace for their accomplishments in science and letters of art. Space will not permit me to dwell upon these men and their accomplishments and the towering obstacles in spite of which they succeeded. I could not fail, however, to mention Frederick Douglas who was one of the greatest statesmen America ever had, even though he was born a slave. Dr. Booker T. Washington was also born a slave, and is one of the greatest educators the world has ever known. As to the many other great things black men have done and are doing, I cannot fail to mention the north pole, for, if human beings have stood on the spot claimed as the north pole, the black man was preceded by no one. I speak of Mr. Matt Henson, the Negro, who, if indeed, the pole ever was reached, was one of the first of the only two “to date” to reach it.

[Pg 20]

 

PROF. W. S. SCARBOROUGH

Prof. W. S. Scarborough is head of the Classical Department of Wilberforce University of Ohio, and Vice-President of the same institution. He, too, is a great writer in defense of the Afro-American race. Here are some of his remarks in his master-piece, “Race Integrity”: (See next page.)

 

“The truth is that the term ‘Caucasian’ has little or no meaning as it is now used. The word itself is a conventional term given at the first by Blumenbach to designate what he considered the highest type of the human family, shown by a skull from Mount Caucasus. When we attempt to trace those who would claim the name as an expression of their superiority we find the type has disappeared. There is no pure specimen now in existence. And if we ask what is ‘white’ we can only say, ‘that it is a term used to designate the absence of color’—that is all, and no sign whatever of ‘race integrity.’ We have already indicated that science and investigation point to the fact that primitive man was not white. It is no new theory, but it has seemed convenient for the Saxon to let it rest as much as possible in discrete oblivion. Bishop H. M. Turner of the African Methodist Episcopal church has often promulgated it in his own inimitable way, and Moncure D. Conway has also declared that the white people of the world today are only a reflex leprosy and that the natural color is brown or black.”

 

 

[Pg 21]

SECOND CHAPTER.

HIS FIRST HOME

God but faintly revealed the puzzle of civilization to Noah and his three sons, Shem, Ham and Japhet (Genesis 9th Chapter 1st seven verses), and it became their duty to start to work on the first moves of the puzzle, as well as to create nations. He, who would begin from the first, moves and works the matter out to perfection.

Ham, the father of the black man, located in Africa. Africa was his homestead, so to speak. David, the Psalmist, credited Ham with this territory in the 105th Psalm 23rd and 27th verses, and also in the 106th Psalm 22nd verse. Now, if this is not true, and we reject it on the ground of not being sufficient proof of the black man’s first and original home, we can on quite as good ground reject any and every other part of the Bible, for what I here state is no wild imagination, but FACTS taken from the Bible.

Cush, Mizriam, Phut and Canaan were the first sons of Ham (Genesis 10th [Pg 22]Chapter, 6th verse), and these four sons including Nimrod, the grandson of Ham, were the first to start work on the problem of civilization; in a word they were the pioneers and the very pillars of civilized governments.

Cush located in South Egypt on the River Nile. He became the father of the Ethiopians as well as the father of the Cushites through Nimrod who located on the Southern part of the Euphrates River. It is to be remembered that Nimrod is the founder of the Babylonian kingdom (Genesis 10th Chapter, 10th verse.) Mizriam located on the upper part of the River Nile, and he became the father of the Egyptians. Phut located in the Northern part of Africa. Canaan located in the land known as the old Palestine country, which is modern Turkey. Canaan became the father of the Canaanites (Genesis 10th Chapter, 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th verses). According to the Bible the above is the exact location of the first sons of Ham, and the question which naturally follows is, “Was civilization born in their land and given birth by Ham’s first offspring?” It is conceded by John Clark Ridpath and a few other writers on ancient history that the Egyptians were the fathers of civilization, [Pg 23]according to the chronology of Manetho, an Egyptian priest. Egypt was founded in the year B. C. 3892, and Menes was the first mortal King. The all important question now arises, “Were the Egyptians descendants of black men, or were they descendants of white men? Were they descendants of Ham or Shem?” It is well known that students claim to be divided in their opinion as to the original stock from which the ancient Egyptians came. Ridpath, among others, says they were neither Semitic nor Negro, but concludes his remarks on the origin of the Egyptians by saying that the ancient Egyptians were considered a branch of that part of the Cushite family, which settled in Asia. Probably the little matter of the Cushites being the grand-children of Ham slipped Ridpath’s mind, else his statements would not have been so conflicting, because he just says that they were not Negroes, but ends his argument by saying that they were a branch of the Cushite family of Asia.

It requires no laborious research to establish the facts that Cush was the father of all Cushite nations. He was also the first son of Ham (Genesis 10th Chapter, 6th verse). Now then, if the Ethiopians and all other Cushite nations who sprang from this first son of Ham were not Negroes, will[Pg 24] some of our historians omit the word “probably,” so much used by them, and say what they were. It is fair to assume that with their boasted intelligence and superior brain power, by this time they would have been able to search out and connect at least some of the many facts, and plain, indisputable records in the Bible which leaves no room for doubt or “probably.”

We learn from the Bible that Ham is the father of the African family; the Ethiopian is the darkest or blackest tribe of the Hamites. Cush was the founder or father of this tribe. Moses selected his wife from this black or Ethiopian tribe (Numbers 12th Chapter, 1st verse). It must be plain to any one who will read the parts referred to in the Bible, that Ridpath’s contention that the Egyptians sprang from the Cushites was the wrong avenue to escape the blood of the Negro, or their relation to the black man’s family. I believe, however, that Ridpath wrote in good faith for the majority of the historical writers claim that the Egyptians descended from a white race, notwithstanding they admit that the Old Testament gives the truest, the most complete and reliable record on the origin of the Egyptians of any other book, so it is not unnatural to believe[Pg 25] that their opinions are influenced by racial prejudice.

Now it is true that the Bible contains the only authentic, and certainly the most ancient record of not only the Egyptians, but of all mankind, and I CAN and will PROVE by it that the Egyptian—Hamite—sprang from Mizriam.

According to the Biblical Gazette, the word “Egypt” is derived from the word Mizriam, and this word “Mizriam” was the name of one of the first sons of Ham (Genesis 10th Chapter, 6th verse). By the word “Egypt” being coined from the word “Mizriam,” it strengthens my contention that the Egyptian was descended from the black man. I will now dig down further into the rich earth of proof for more enlightenment out of the Book of Truth. By viewing the ancient Bible map of Africa and Asia, which map can be found in the back of the New Testament, one can readily pick out the spots upon which Shem, Ham and Japheth first located. You will notice that Mizriam, the second son of Ham, and the accredited father of the Egyptians located on the very spot, so to speak, where the great City of Memphis was built by Menes, the first King of Egypt. Again you will notice that all[Pg 26] the names within African borders are names of the sons of Ham, Shem and his offspring, located in Asia. Perhaps a better way to locate Ham, Shem and Japheth and their first offspring is first to read the 10th and 11th Chapters of Genesis, then locate their names on the map, and it will be seen that not a Shemite, or white man, originally located in Africa. All of the white men located in Asia, and according to the Bible white men never began to travel in Africa until Abraham’s time, B. C. 1921. The Egyptians lived in a high state of civilization near 2,000 years before Abraham’s first visit to Egypt, and the appearance of white people was a circus and a curiosity to the black people. Abraham realized this fact and commanded his wife to represent herself as his sister, because as he said, “she was fair to look upon,” white (Genesis 12th Chapter, 11th, 12th and 13th verses). This would indicate that the Egyptians were not white, and I will say without fear of my assertion being disproven, that until after the time of Abraham, the Egyptians were a simon pure black race. Shortly after Abraham’s visit, the Shemitic or white travellers began to pour into Egypt to such an extent that the Egyptians began inter-marrying with them, and of course,[Pg 27] this inter-marrying had its effect of contaminating the pure Negro blood, and this inter-marrying was the cause of the black man, or full blooded Egyptian losing the power of control in the Kingdom. In other words—this is the loop through which the Shepherd or white or Shemitic kings slipped through and took possession of the Egyptian kingdom.

[Pg 28]

 

DR. W. E. BURGHARDT DUBOIS

Dr. W. E. Burghardt DuBois is the most scholarly speaker and writer of the Afro-American race. He is the author of the book “Souls of Black Folk,” which is a marvellous book. On the following page are some of the phrases from his famous address to the Social Study Clubs of Chicago University.

 

February 13th, 1907, on Education and Civilization:

“The doing of the world’s work is a great duty and a great privilege. It is a thing not to be aimed at but to be aimed beyond. Just so soon as a nation or a country can put its foot upon this satisfaction of the lower wants and step upward to the greater aspirations of human brotherhood and the broader ideals of civilization, just so soon the real building of civilization begins. It seems to me, therefore, that the students of Chicago University and they that teach them, ought especially, on every occasion to impress this broader aspect of the race problem. That instead of putting it in its narrower, nastier channel, instead of stooping to listen to men, who themselves represent what is lowest and least in our national organization, that you should strive in every way to realize yourselves and to show others that this great broad question of humanity is not a question of petty crime, not a question of so many bales of cotton, not a question even of mere industrial development, but is a question of human aspiration, and that if here in America, on the very fore front of present advance, it is possible to murder the aspiration of 10,000,000 of men, then America is not yet civilized.”

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